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Course Descriptions

Indigenous Languages


Area I – Indigenous Language Learning

IS-1101 (6) Introductory Cree (3 hrs Lecture | 1 hrs Lab)
This course is intended for students who are not fluent in Cree and have never taken a course in the language. The emphasis is primarily on oral work for the purpose of learning basic sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical patterns. Structural differences between Cree and English are highlighted. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ABOR-1101. Requisite Courses: IS-1101L (lab) (must be taken concurrently).

IS-1201 (6) Introductory Ojibwe (3 hrs Lecture | 1 hrs Lab)
This course is intended for students who are not fluent in Ojibwe and have never taken a course in the language. The emphasis is primarily on oral work for the purpose of learning basic sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical patterns. Structural differences between Ojibwe and English are highlighted. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ABOR-1201. Requisite Courses: IS-1201L (lab) (must be taken concurrently).

IS-1301 (3) Special Topics in Introductory Indigenous Languages (3 hrs Lecture)
This course provides an opportunity for students to learn an Indigenous language other than Cree and Ojibwe at the first-year level. Focus is on the Indigenous languages spoken in Manitoba or neighbouring regions. While the nature and range of topics will vary depending upon the expertise of the instructor, the emphasis will usually be on oral work for the purpose of learning basic sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical patterns. The course may be repeated if the topic varies. Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated.

IS-1501 (6) Oral Immersion in Cree I (3 hrs Lecture | 1 hrs Lab)
The Cree Immersion 1 course is intended for students to learn conversational Cree through community language learning methods. The emphasis is primarily on oral conversations using Cree vocabulary, expressions, simple sentences, and conjunctive sentences of selected themes through contemporary and traditional Cree perspectives. Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Requisite Courses: IS-1501L (lab) (must be taken concurrently).

IS-1601 (6) Oral Immersion in Ojibwe I (3 hrs Lecture | 1 hrs Lab)
The Ojibwe Immersion 1 course is intended for students to learn conversational Ojibwe through community language learning methods. The emphasis is primarily on oral conversations using Ojibwe vocabulary, expressions, simple sentences, and conjunctive sentences of selected themes through contemporary and traditional Ojibwe perspectives. Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Requisite Courses: IS-1601L (lab) (must be taken concurrently).

IS-2101 (6) Intermediate Cree (3 hrs Lecture | Lab)
This course is an intermediate course in the Cree language. It serves as a continuation of Introductory Cree (IS-1101) or as the entry-level course for fluent speakers of Cree. The course focuses primarily on oral conversational skills, vocabulary, and grammatical patterns. Attention is paid to Cree orthography, composition and translation. The lab component provides one-on-one and small group interactions intended to enhance language acquisition and provide additional opportunities for language practice and usage. Requisite Courses: IS-1101 or permission of the instructor [prerequisite(s)]; IS-2101L (lab) (must be taken concurrently).

IS-2201 (6) Intermediate Ojibwe (3 hrs Lecture | 1 hrs Lab)
This course is an intermediate course in the Ojibwe language. It serves as a continuation of Introductory Ojibwe (IS-1201) or as the entry-level course for fluent speakers of Ojibwe. The course focuses primarily on oral conversational skills, vocabulary and grammatical patterns. Attention is paid to Ojibwe orthography, composition and translation. The lab component provides one-on-one and small group interactions intended to enhance language acquisition and provide additional opportunities for language practice and usage. Requisite Courses: IS-1201 or permission of the instructor [prerequisite(s)]; IS-2201L (lab) (must be taken concurrently).

IS-3106 (3) Advanced Ojibwe (3 hrs Lecture)
This course is a continuation of IS 2201 (6). It assumes basic speaking ability in the Ojibwe language, emphasizes phonetic and grammatical structure and presents the knowledge necessary for effective teaching of the language. Students study narratives containing a broad sample of the structures they have covered up to this level. As part of this course, students are expected to develop an instructional module appropriate for a 1000-level Ojibwe language course. Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Requisite Courses: IS-2201 [prerequisite(s).

IS-4029 (3) Indigenous Language Mentorship (3 hrs Apprenticeship/Internship/Practicum)
This course provides an opportunity for students of Indigenous Languages to work with fluent speakers in Manitoba in a mentoring or apprenticeship context to develop language proficiency. By the end of this course, students will have increased their oral proficiency in an Indigenous language, as well as planned and assessed their own language learning goals and progress. Note: This course is a required course for the Thematic Major in Indigenous Languages Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Requisite Courses: Students are required to have completed 18 credit hours from the Thematic Major or obtain permission from the instructor [prerequisite(s)].

Area II – Language Revitalization

ANTH-2407 (3) Language Revitalization (3 hrs Lecture)
This course examines the need for language revitalization in the context of language endangerment that is now occurring on a global scale. Students learn about factors that contribute to languages remaining strong, as well as processes such as colonization and assimilation that have led to language shift, loss, and death. Students learn about the importance of diverse languages, and also about strategies and programs that communities have applied to maintain or regain their languages. Key language revitalization methods are taught, including language healing, language development, language learning technologies, language nests, and master-apprentice programs. Cross-listed: LING-2104 and IS-2407. Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and IS-2407 | LING-2104.

ANTH-2408 (3) Indigenous Languages, Contact and Change (3 hrs Lecture)
This course examines Indigenous languages of Manitoba and the changes that have occurred due to colonization and assimilation as well as the processes of Indigenous language endangerment which is now occurring on a global scale. Discussions also focus on suggested solutions to endangerment and loss of Indigenous linguistic diversity. Languages such as Ojibwe, Cree, Ojibwe-Cree, Dakota, and Michif are highlighted for analysis. Cross-listed: LING-2105 Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and LING-2105

ANTH-3409 (3) Language Policy and Planning (3 hrs Lecture)
Language Policy and Planning addresses the ways in which people, organizations, and governments have tried to control or influence how languages are learned, developed and used. It includes the development of standardized languages, writing systems, and creation of grammars and dictionaries. It also addresses language legislation, and governments' and organizations' attempts to promote or prescribe certain languages, including in K-12 education. The implementation of language policies and plans is shaped by many factors including history, politics, and ideologies. Students in this course examine methods and theories of language policy and planning development and implementation with specific application to Indigenous languages. Cross-listed: LING-3109 Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and LING-3109. Requisite Courses: 18 Credit hours completed in any subject area [prerequisite(s)].

IL-3001 (3) Capstone in Indigenous Languages (3 hrs Lecture/Seminar)
Students complete this course in the last semester of the program. It provides students with an opportunity to draw from their experience and understanding in the program by conducting a project on Indigenous languages (e.g., translation, documentation, curriculum development or language revitalization strategy for an Indigenous Community (on-reserve or in an urban setting)). This course is only open to students in the last year of the 3- or 4-year IL BA program. Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and IL-4001. Requisite Courses: This course is a required course for the Thematic Major in Indigenous Languages. Students are required to have completed 18 credit hours from the Thematic Major or obtain permission from the instructor [prerequisite(s)].

IL-4001 (3) Capstone in Indigenous Languages (3 hrs Lecture/Seminar)
Students complete this course in the last semester of the program. It provides students with an opportunity to draw from their experience and understanding in the program by conducting a project on Indigenous languages (e.g., translation, documentation, curriculum development or language revitalization strategy for an Indigenous Community (on-reserve or in an urban setting)). This course is only open to students in the last year of the 3- or 4- year IL BA program. Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and IL-3001. Requisite Courses: This course is a required course for the Thematic Major in Indigenous Languages. Students are required to have completed 18 credit hours from the Thematic Major or obtain permission from the instructor [prerequisite(s)].

LING-2104 (3) Language Revitalization (3 hrs Lecture)
This course examines the need for language revitalization in the context of language endangerment that is now occurring on a global scale. Students learn about factors that contribute to language remaining strong, as well as processes such as colonization and assimilation that have led to language shift, loss, and death. Students learn about the importance of diverse languages, and also about strategies and programs that communities have applied to maintain or regain their languages. Key language revitalization methods are taught, including language healing, language development, language learning technologies, language nests, and master-apprentice programs. Cross-listed: ANTH-2407(3) and IS-2407(3). Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2407 | IS-2407.

LING-2105 (3) Indigenous Languages, Contact and Change (3 hrs Lecture)
This course examines Indigenous languages of Manitoba and the changes that have occurred due to colonization and assimilation as well as the processes of Indigenous language endangerment which is now occurring on a global scale. Discussions also focus on suggested solutions to endangerment and loss of Indigenous linguistic diversity. Languages such as Ojibwe, Cree, Ojibwe-Cree, Dakota, and Michif are highlighted for analysis. Cross-listed: ANTH-2408 Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2408.

LING-4025 (3) Indigenous Languages: Culture, Rights, and Conflict (3 hrs Seminar/Discussion)
Indigenous languages are an integral part of Indigenous peoples' identity, worldview and culture. It is however, currently estimated that up to ninety per cent of the world's Indigenous languages are likely to disappear by the end of the century. This course is designed to give students and overview of Indigenous language issues related to culture, advocacy, revitalization, and resistance. Students are encouraged to critically compare and contrast the treatment of Indigenous languages through legislation, policy, grassroots activism, and educational and systemic efforts in countries such as Canada, the United States, New Zealand, Norway, and Sweden. Cross-listed: IS-4025(3) Restrictions: Honours Form Required. Students may not hold credit for this course and IS-4025. Requisite Courses: IS-1015 or IS-1016 and IS-1017 [prerequisite(s)].

Area III – Cognate Courses

ANTH-1005 (3) Introduction to Cultural Anthropology: Indigenous Focus (3 hrs Lecture)
This course is a general introduction to the comparative study of human social and cultural life. Topical emphases vary but may include language, economic and political organization, kinship and marriage, ritual and belief, and the causes and consequences of social and cultural change in the contemporary world. This course focuses primarily on Indigenous peoples in North America. Some instructors may devote substantially more time than others to the study of linguistics. Students are advised to consult with individual instructors of details. Experimental Course - This course is offered on a trial basis to gauge interest in the topic. Students who successfully complete this course receive credit as indicated. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-1001 | ANTH-1002

ANTH-2103 (3) Ethnography of North American First Peoples (3 hrs Lecture)
This course surveys the cultures and societies of Indigenous peoples in Canada and select regions of the United States from the beginnings of European contact to the present day. Topics include economy, social structure, mythology, religion, and culture change.

ANTH-2400 (3) Method and Theory in Linguistic Anthropology (3 hrs Lecture/Seminar)
This course examines the relationship between language and culture, including the theories and principles of linguistic anthropology. More than 20 languages are compared and contrasted in order to understand the concepts of language structure. Topics include the basic principles of phonetics and phonology, morphology, syntax, pragmatics, language change, literacy, nonverbal communication and signed languages. Cross-listed: LING-2102(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and LING-2102.

ANTH-2401 (3) Phonetics and Phonology (3 hrs Lecture)
This course describes all English consonant and vowel sounds in terms of place and manner of articulation. It also identifies how sounds are organized into syllables and words by studying the concepts of phonemes, allophones and phonological rules. Although the course focuses on English phonology, it also draws heavily on other languages to illustrate the key concepts. Students will be required to master characters and diacritics from the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cross-listed: LING-2001(3) and ENGL-2803(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ENGL-2803 | LING-2001.

ANTH-2402 (3) Morphology (3 hrs Lecture)
This course introduces students to the concepts and methods of word analysis. Students investigate the nature of morphemes (smallest units of meaning), their different types and functions, and the different ways they are organized into words. The course explores the process of word formation through derivation and compounding as well as grammatical uses of inflectional morphemes. Based largely in English, both lectures and exercises also draw on various other languages to highlight key morphological features and constructs. Cross-listed: ENGL-2805(3) and LING-2002(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ENGL-2805 | LING-2002.

ANTH-2403 (3) Syntax (3 hrs Lecture)
Syntax is the study of the arrangement of words into groups, clauses and sentences. In this course students use morphological, syntactic, semantic, and lexical criteria to define traditional parts of speech, in order to understand how these combine to form a variety of clauses and sentences types. Form, function, class and structure are introduced from the perspective of systemic functional and communication linguistics. These descriptive frameworks are contrasted with transformational generative models and others. Cross-listed: ENGL-2802(3) and LING-2003(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ENGL-2802 | LING-2003.

ANTH-2405 (3) Semantics (3 hrs Lecture)
Semantics is the branch of linguistics concerned with how we construct meaning using language. It is arguably the most diverse branch, situated between the highly formalizable "inner layers" of phonology, morphology and syntax and the fuzzier "outer layer" of pragmatics. Key ideas covered in the course include: the difference between sense and reference, the application of basic rules in formal logic, prototype theory, componential analysis, and cognitive semantics; how to identify thematic roles in sentences; the functions of noun classifiers, deictics, and adpositions in different languages; and, the nature of metaphors, metonyms and image schemas. Cross-listed: ENGL-2806(3) and LING-2004(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ENGL-2806 | LING-2004.

ANTH-3120 (3) Indigenous Peoples of Arctic Canada (3 hrs Lecture)
This course focuses on the Inuit and their ancestors, inhabitants of Canada's Arctic and adjacent regions for nearly 5000 years. It examines the origins and development of their pre-and post-contact culture in light of archaeological and ethnographic evidence, with emphasis on regional variations in subsistence and settlement patterns, social organizations, intellectual life, and contact with Euro-Canadian institutions, ideas, and state policy. The course concludes by considering Inuit culture identity in the 21st century. Cross-listed: HIST-3522(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2118 | HIST-3522.

ANTH-3125 (3) Ethnographic Research Methods (3 hrs Lecture)
This course offers students an opportunity to learn and apply ethnographic research and field techniques. Areas of instruction include participant observation, surveys, and interviews, the recording of data in field notes and by such means as video, photography and mapping, and ethical considerations in contemporary research settings. Additional in-depth work is required to receive credit at the 4000 level. Cross-listed: ANTH-4125(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-4125. Requisite Courses: ANTH-2100 or permission of the instructor [prerequisite(s)].

ANTH-3400 (3) Language Typology (3 hrs Seminar/Discussion)
This course examines and classifies a number of languages by applying the basic concepts of Anthropological Linguistics to analysis of the phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of various languages. The structure of these languages is compared and contrasted to explore typological patterns and explain structural diversity of human languages. Relations between the grammar and pragmatic features of the languages are also explored. Additional in-depth work is required to receive credit at the 4000 level. Cross-listed: ANTH-4400(3), LING-3006(3) and LING-4006(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and LING-3006 | LING-3400 | LING-4006. Requisite Courses: ANTH-2400 or LING-2102 or permission of instructor [prerequisite(s)].

ANTH-3408 (3) Sociolinguistics (3 hrs Lecture | Seminar/Discussion)
Sociolinguistics is the systematic study of language as a social phenomenon with a focus on the relationship between language and various social variables such as age, class, ethnicity and gender. This course examines language variations on regional (regional dialects), social (sociolects) and personal (styles and registers) level, as well as topics such as standard language, slang, jargon, politeness and taboo. It introduces students to the concepts of language ideologies, communities of practice, multilingualism, diglossia and code switching, and explores the problems of language in the contact and of language shift, revival and planning. Cross-listed: LING-3103(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and LING-3103. Requisite Courses: LING-1001 or ANTH-1001 or ANTH-1002 [prerequisite(s)].

IS-4025 (3) Indigenous Languages: Culture, Rights, and Conflicts (3 hrs Seminar/Discussion)
Indigenous languages are an integral part of Indigenous peoples' identity, worldview and culture. It is however, currently estimated that up to ninety per cent of the world's Indigenous languages are likely to disappear by the end of the century. This course is designed to give students an overview of Indigenous language issues related to culture, advocacy, revitalization, and resistance. Students are encouraged to critically compare and contrast the treatment of Indigenous languages through legislation, policy, grassroots activism, and educational and systemic efforts in countries such as Canada, the United States, New Zealand, Norway, and Sweden. Cross-listed: LING-4025(3), HR-4025(3) Restrictions: Honours Form Required. Students may not hold credit for this course and HR-4025 | LING-4025. Requisite Courses: IS-1016 and IS-1017, or the former IS-1015[prerequisite(s)].

IS-1010 (3) Indigenous Ways of Knowing (3 hrs Lecture)
Large numbers of Indigenous peoples settling in Winnipeg, and in core neighbourhoods, suggest that students studying urbanism need to be aware that the city and critical issues in the inner-city can be interpreted differently. This course offers an introduction to Indigenous ways of knowing through active participation in strategies that facilitate the production of Aboriginal knowledge and through comparisons with Euro-American ways of knowing. By taking part in basic ceremony and related practices, students gain an understanding of how First Peoples of Manitoba relate to each other, to the land, to other animals, and to the world. Cross-listed: UIC-1010(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and UIC-1010

IS-1016 (3) Introduction to Indigenous Studies: Art, Culture and History (3 hrs Lecture)
This course provides an introduction to Indigenous art, culture and history in North America. Starting with the pre contact indigenous societies, students explore the richness and diversity of indigenous cultures as they evolved out of different eco-systems from Central America up to Canada's Arctic. Using Indigenous ontologies and epistemologies as a starting point, the course provides an alternative view of colonial history as well as the post-colonial struggle of indigenous peoples for their own identity, place and belonging in contemporary society. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and HIST-1009 | IS-1015.

IS-1017 (3) Introduction to Indigenous Studies: Politics and Governance (3 hrs Lecture)
This course provides an introduction to the politics, economics and governance of indigenous peoples in Canada. These systems developed in distinctive ecological contexts that shaped the way these cultures learned to thrive in relationship to all other living things. The course begins with an introduction to the ontologies and epistemological foundations of thought then explores the historical evolution of the economic and political relationship between indigenous peoples (First Nation, non-status and Metis) and the nation state in Canada. Key topics include: the Royal Proclamation, the Treaties, Indigenous people and the Supreme Court of Canada, the Indian Act and Residential schools. Note: Students with credit in IS-1015 may not receive credit for IS-1017.

IS-2020 (3) Colonization and Indigenous Peoples (3 hrs Lecture)
This course examines the Indigenous colonial experience, particularly in Western Canada, and the impact colonization has had and continues to have on the relationship between Indigenous peoples and Canadian governments. This course emphasizes the contemporary effects of colonization, particularly as regards identity issues and how they play out in the urban and inner-city environment, and also processes and strategies for decolonization. Cross-listed: POL-2020(3) and UIC-2020(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and POL-2020 | UIC-2020.

IS-3125 (3) The Intergenerational Legacy of Residential Schools (3 hrs Lecture)
The residential school system was a mandatory school system for all Aboriginal children. The objective of these schools was to extinguish Aboriginal culture and language from the Canadian landscape. The first school opened in the late 1800's and the last school closed in the 1980's. The result from this long history is a legacy that impacts all Canadians and Aboriginal peoples. This course examines the impact of the residential school system in a variety of areas such as the loss of language and culture, loss of parenting skills, (especially mothering), as well as settler and Aboriginal relations. Cross-listed: UIC-3125(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and UIC-3125. Requisite Courses: IS-1016 and IS-1017, or the former IS-1015 [prerequisite(s)].

IS-4021 (6) Pathways to Indigenous Wisdom (3 hrs Lecture)
In this course, students' assumptions and world views are challenged and enriched by a deep and complex understanding of Indigenous ways of knowing. By decolonizing and indigenizing the mind, students are open to imagining and, later, implementing strategies that are embedded in indigenous teachings. The course emphasizes the importance of critical thinking through the examination and immersion into indigenous epistemologies and brings to the program the instructor's expertise in First Nations governance, development efforts and systems. Cannot receive credit in IS 4021 if previous credit in GIS 4021 or GIS 7021. Restrictions: Honours Form Required. Requisite Courses: IS-1016 and IS-1017, or the former IS-1015 [prerequisite(s)].

LING-1001 (6) Introduction to Linguistics (3 hrs Lecture)
This course introduces students to the nature of human language and linguistic research. The aim is to familiarize students with the properties of language by focusing on the following core areas: phonetics and phonology (sound structure), morphology (word structure), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (the structure of meaningful categories) and pragmatics (the use of language in specific social and cultural contexts). Other topics covered include language acquisition, language variation, and language change. A variety of languages are used for illustration. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2022 | FREN-2022 | LING-1200.

LING-2001 (3) Phonetics and Phonology (3 hrs Lecture)
This course describes all English consonant and vowel sounds in terms of place and manner of articulation. It also identifies how sounds are organized into syllables and words by studying the concepts of phonemes, allophones and phonological rules. Although the course focuses on English phonology, it also draws heavily on other languages to illustrate the key concepts. Students will be required to master characters and diacritics from the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cross-listed: ANTH-2401(3) and ENGL-2803(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2401 | ENGL-2803.

LING-2002 (3) Morphology (3 hrs Lecture)
This course introduces students to the concepts and methods of word analysis. Students investigate the nature of morphemes (smallest units of meaning), their different types and functions, and the different ways they are organized into words. The course explores the process of word formation through derivation and compounding as well as grammatical uses of inflectional morphemes. Based largely in English, both lectures and exercises also draw on various other languages to highlight key morphological features and constructs. Cross-listed: ANTH-2402(3) and ENGL-2805(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2402 | ENGL-2805.

LING-2003 (3) Syntax (3 hrs Lecture)
Syntax is the study of the arrangement of words into groups, clauses and sentences. In this course students use morphological, syntactic, semantic, and lexical criteria to define traditional parts of speech, in order to understand how these combine to form a variety of clauses and sentences types. Form, function, class and structure are introduced from the perspective of systemic functional and communication linguistics. These descriptive frameworks are contrasted with transformational generative models and others. Cross-listed: ANTH-2403(3) and ENGL-2802(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2403 | ENGL-2802.

LING-2004 (3) Semantics (3 hrs Lecture)
Semantics is the branch of linguistics concerned with how we construct meaning using language. It is arguably the most diverse branch, situated between the highly formalizable "inner layers" of phonology, morphology and syntax and the fuzzier "outer layer" of pragmatics. Key ideas covered in the course include: the difference between sense and reference, the application of basic rules in formal logic, prototype theory, componential analysis, and cognitive semantics; how to identify thematic roles in sentences; the functions of noun classifiers, deictics, and adpositions in different languages; and, the nature of metaphors, metonyms and image schemas. Cross-listed: ANTH-2405(3) and ENGL-2806(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2405 | ENGL-2806.

LING-2102 (3) Method and Theory in Linguistic Anthropology (3 hrs Lecture/Seminar)
This course examines the relationship between language and culture, including the theories and principles of linguistic anthropology. More than 20 languages are compared and contrasted in order to understand the concepts of language structure. Topics include the basic principles of phonetics and phonology, morphology, syntax, pragmatics, language change, literacy, nonverbal communication and signed languages. Cross-listed: ANTH-2400(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-2400.

LING-3006 (3) Language Typology (3 hrs Lecture)
This course examines and classifies a number of languages by applying the basic concepts of Anthropological Linguistics to analysis of the phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of various languages. The structure of these languages is compared and contrasted to explore typological patterns and explain structural diversity of human languages. Relations between the grammar and pragmatic features of the languages are also explored. Additional in-depth work is required to receive credit at the 4000 level. Cross-listed: LING-4006(3), ANTH-3400 and ANTH-4400(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-3400 | LING-4006. Requisite Courses: ANTH-2400 or LING-2102 or permission of the instructor [prerequisite(s)].

LING-3103 (3) Sociolinguistics (3 hrs Lecture | Seminar/Discussion)
Sociolinguistics is the systematic study of language as a social phenomenon with a focus on the relationship between language and various social variables such as age, class, ethnicity and gender. This course examines language variations on regional (regional dialects), social (sociolects) and personal (styles and registers) level, as well as topics such as standard language, slang, jargon, politeness and taboo. It introduces students to the concepts of language ideologies, communities of practice, multilingualism, diglossia and code switching, and explores the problems of language in the contact and of language shift, revival and planning. Cross-listed: ANTH-3408. Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-3408. Requisite Courses: LING-1001 or ANTH-1001 or ANTH-1002 [prerequisite(s)].

LING-3305 (3) Studies in Bilingualism (3 hrs Lecture)
This course explores three major aspects of bilingualism: the context, the learner, and the writer. The context section introduces historical and geographical aspects of bilingualism (e.g. official/unofficial bilingualism in the Francophone world), and resulting sociolinguistic situations (e.g. diglossia/bilingualism). The main section of the course focuses on the bilingual learner (e.g. multilingual acquisition, compound bilingualism, the active lexicon in Franco-Manitoban and immersion schoolchildren). The concluding section examines examples of bilingual writing (e.g. Beckett, Green, Leveille). Cross-listed: FREN-3205(3), FREN-4205(3), and LING-4305(3). Restrictions: Students may not hold credit for this course and FREN-3205 | FREN-4205 | LING-4305. Requisite Courses: 6 credit hours in 2000 level French Studies courses; including 3 credit hours in 2000-level language/linguistics, or permission of the instructor [prerequisite(s)].

LING-4006 (3) Language Typology (3 hrs Lecture)
This course examines and classifies a number of languages by applying the basic concepts of Anthropological Linguistics to analysis of the phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of various languages. The structure of these languages is compared and contrasted to explore typological patterns and explain structural diversity of human languages. Relations between the grammar and pragmatic features of the languages are also explored. Additional in-depth work is required to receive credit at the 4000 level. Cross-listed: LING-3006(3) and ANTH-3400 and ANTH-4400(3). Restrictions: Department Permission Required. Students may not hold credit for this course and ANTH-3400 | LING-3006.

LING-4101 (3) Topics in Language, Culture, and Communication (3 hrs Lecture)
This course offers instruction in current issues related to the interrelationship between language, culture, and communication. The specific focus of the course varies from year to year with instructor. Note: Permission of the Program Coordinator and the Instructor, plus LING-2101(3) and LING-3001(6) or in the absence of these courses permission of the Instructor is required. Students must have a GPA of at least 3.0 in Linguistics. Restrictions: Department Permission Required. Requisite Courses: LING-2101 and LING-3001 and permission of the Program Coordinator [prerequisite(s)].

LING-4203 (3) Tutorial Apprenticeship (3 hrs Lecture)
This course provides opportunities for experiencing and exploring learning and teaching strategies in designated university linguistics and culture courses. Students may assist by; offering individual support and instruction for students facing challenges with course material; leading groups of advanced or remedial students within the class when appropriate; designing class materials including exercises and answer keys. Students meet regularly with the supervising professor in order to discuss and evaluate teaching strategies and materials. Note: Permission of the Program Coordinator and supervising Instructor, plus a minimum of 18 credit hours from list A and 6 credit hours from list B is required. Students must have a GPA of at least 3.0 in Linguistics. Restrictions: Department Permission Required.

LING-4204 (3) Research Apprenticeship (3 hrs Apprenticeship/Internship/Practicum)
In this course students reflect on how research issues influence their study of language and culture. Students meet with instructors who have similar research interests in one-to-one tutorials and seminars to discuss common research questions and practices. They may consider a range of issues, including various recording, transcribing and analyzing strategies for real data. They may also consider how the analysis of key periodicals, critical studies and professional associations define a particular research topic, and constrain how various research topics and explorations are communicated. The course supports the development of research skills for work in the field of Linguistics and Culture. Note: Permission of the Program Coordinator and supervising Instructor plus a minimum of 18 credit hours from list A and 6 credit hours from list B is required. Students must have a GPA of at least 3.0 in Linguistics. Restrictions: Department Permission Required.

LING-4305 (3) Studies in Bilingualism (3 hrs Lecture)
This course explores three major aspects of bilingualism: the context, the learner, and the writer. The context section introduces historical and geographical aspects of bilingualism (e.g. official/unofficial bilingualism in the Francophone world), and resulting sociolinguistic situations (e.g. diglossia/bilingualism). The main section of the course focuses on the bilingual learner (e.g. multilingual acquisition, compound bilingualism, the active lexicon in Franco-Manitoban and immersion schoolchildren). The concluding section examines examples of bilingual writing (e.g. Beckett, Green, Leveille). Cross-listed: FREN-3205(3), FREN-4205(3), and LING-3305(3). Restrictions: Honours Form Required. Students may not hold credit for this course and FREN-3205 | FREN-4205 | LING-3305. Requisite Courses: 6 credit hours in 2000-level French Studies courses; including 3 credit hours in 2000-level language/linguistics, or permission of the instructor [prerequisite(s)].