Spectroscopic facilities and capabilities

C-TAPE has always had the development of spectroscopic capabilities to support planetary exploration as its main focus. Below we describe our major spectroscopic instruments and their capabilities:

  1. Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR and Hyperion microscope,
  2. Buck M5000 infrared spectrometer,
  3. ASD FieldSpec Pro HR spectrometer,
  4. Designs & Prototypes 102F FTIR spectrometer,
  5. Ocean Optics Maya200 Pro spectrometer,
  6. Delta Nu Rockhound Raman spectrometer,
  7. BWTek iRaman Raman spectrometer,
  8. Hyperspectral imagers.
Spectrometer bandwidth capabilities

1. Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR and Hyperion microscope

The laboratory is equipped with a Bruker Vertex 70 model FTIR spectrometer coupled to a
Hyperion model 2000 microscope spectrometer system.

Vertex 70 FTIR

The Vertex 70 and Hyperion systems have been custom-configured to allow operations to as low as 400 nm (25,000 cm-1). The accessible wavelength range of the Vertex 70 system is 400 nm to 50000 nm (25,000 - 200 cm-1) through various combinations of interchangeable and fixed detectors, beamsplitters, and windows. Spectral resolution can be varied and can be set as low as 0.5 cm-1. Improvements in signal to noise are possible by varying scan speeds (integration time) and numbers of spectra acquired.

Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR spectrometer

As with most FTIR instruments, the Vertex 70 was designed primarily to enable transmission spectroscopic measurements. We have adapted the sample compartment to enable bidirectional/biconical reflectance measurements in a controlled atmosphere using two accessories:

  • A Specac bidirectional reflectance accessory that allows for independent setting of both incidence and emission angles,
  • A Pike EasiDiff reflectance accessory that provides fixed 30°/30° viewing geometry.
Vertex 70 accessory: Specac bidirectional reflectance Vertex 70 accessory: SpecDiff

Hyperion microscope

The Hyperion 2000 microspectroscopy accessory provides wavelength coverage from 400 nm to 22,000 nm (25,000 - 454 cm-1). It is equipped with various accessories and add-ons that enable acquisition of transmission or reflectance data, fluorescence, polarization, and attenuated total reflectance (using a germanium crystal). An interfaced video camera allows for sample viewing and image documentation. The Hyperion is also equipped with a motorized XYZ stage that enables hyperspectral sample mapping (the Hyperion uses a single element detector for acquiring point spectra, and the programmable XYZ stage allows for two-dimensional spectral mapping).

Hyperion microscope

2. Buck M5000 infrared spectrometer

C-TAPE is equipped with a Buck M5000 infrared spectrometer. The M5000 is a grating-scanning instrument. This unit provides wavelength coverage from 2500 nm to 16,666 nm (4000 - 600 cm-1) with spectral resolution as high as 2 cm-1. The spectrometer can accommodate reflectance accessories for the acquisition of high-resolution reflectance spectra. The instrument is programmable in terms of scan speed and spectral resolution to enable improvements in signal to noise.

3. ASD FieldSpec Pro HR spectrometer

ASD FieldSpec Pro HR spectrometer

The Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpecPro HR spectrometer is a fibre optic-equipped field-portable unit capable of spectral acquisitions from 350 to 2500 nm utilizing a silicon array detector (350-1000 nm) and two Peltier-cooled graded-index InGaAs photodiodes (SWIR1: 1000-1830 nm, SWIR2: 1830-2500 nm). Spectral resolution ranges between 3 and 7 nm and the instrument has a step size of 1.4 nm, but the data are internally resampled by the instrument to ultimately output the data at 1 nm intervals.

Interchangeable fibre optic options include a fibre bundle for near-normal simultaneous illumination and reflectance measurements or with use with a stand-alone light source. The instrument is capable of acquiring reflectance, fluorescence, and transmittance spectra. A range of additional ASD accessories is also available for different types of reflectance measurements.

4. Designs & Prototypes 102F FTIR spectrometer

The Designs & Prototypes 102F field-portable FTIR spectrometer provides spectral coverage from 2000 to 16,666 nm (5000-600 cm-1) with 6 cm-1 spectral resolution. It uses fixed but pointable optics for reflectance/emission measurements. It is field-portable and can operate using battery power. It is also equipped with an integratable black body source.

Design and Prototypes 102F FTIR spectrometer

5. Ocean Optics Maya200 Pro spectrometer

The Ocean Optics Maya2000 Pro is a miniaturized spectrometer covering the wavelength range of 200 – 1100 nm. Equipped with an HC-1 grating and a 30 μm slit, the effective spectral resolution ranges between 0.48 nm at 200 nm and 0.46 nm at 400 – 1100 nm. The detector is a 2D back-thinned linear CCD-array. The Ocean Optics instrument can be fitted with a variety of fiber optic bundles that allow for near-normal incidence and illumination (using bifurcated fiber optic bundles) or bidirectional measurements using two separate fiber optic cables. It can also be used in conjunction with various ASD reflectance accessories. Ocean Optics Maya200 Pro spectrometer


6. Delta Nu Rockhound Raman spectrometer

DeltaNu Rockhound spectrometer The Delta Nu Rockhound spectrometer is intended for the acquisition of point Raman spectra in the laboratory or in the field (operating on battery power). This instrument uses a thermoelectrically cooled (0°C) CCD detector coupled with excitation of 100mW at 785 nm provided by a solid-state diode laser filtered by a long pass OD6 notch. Laser power is adjustable within the software to low, medium, high settings. Its spectral range is 5000 to 50,000 nm (2000 - 200 cm-1), with 8 cm-1 spectral resolution. Spectrometer operation is controlled by a notebook computer, allowing for full off-site operation. A variety of accessories allow for data acquisition in a number of different configurations.

7. BWTek iRaman Raman spectrometer

The B&W Tek i-Raman® is a 532 nm high-resolution field-portable Raman spectrometer with an interfaceable microscope and video camera for micro-Raman spectroscopy. It combines laser stabilization and narrow linewidth. The instrument houses a thermal electrically cooled (14°C) 2048 pixel CCD linear array detector. The effective resolution of the instrument is ~4cm-1 at 614 nm. It utilizes a stabilized 532 nm laser excitation source at ~ 50 mW. The detection range is 175 - 4000 cm-1.

BWTek iRaman spectrometer

8. Hyperspectral imagers

C-TAPE is equipped with three hyperspectral imagers, each covering a specific wavelength range. All three units are field-portable and can be tripod-mounted but require a 120 V power source. The SWIR imager can also be mounted on a custom-built copystand. A variety of light sources and reflectance standards are available for spectral imaging.

Visible hyperspectral imager (VIS imager)

The first unit (VIS imager) consists of a Cambridge Research Instruments (CRI) liquid crystal tunable filter providing wavelength coverage from 420 to 740 nm at a standard 10 nm spectral resolution, with 5 nm intervals possible. The sensor consists of a Retiga Model 1300 model scientific grade digital camera. The detector is a 1.3-Megapixel (1284 x 1024 pixels) Peltier-cooled unit, with 12-bit quantization.

VIS imager

Near-infrared hyperspectral imager (NIR imager)

The second imager (NIR imager) consists of a CRI tunable filter providing wavelength coverage from 650 to 1100 nm at 10 nm spectral resolution, with 5 nm intervals possible. The sensor consists of a Retiga Model 1300 model scientific grade digital camera. The detector is a 1.3-Megapixel (1284 x 1024 pixels) Peltier-cooled unit, with 12-bit quantization.

NIR imager

Short wavelength infrared imager (SWIR imager)

The third imager (SWIR imager) consists of a CRI Varispec XNIR tunable filter assembly providing wavelength coverage from 1200 to 2450 nm at 10 nm spectral resolution, with 5 nm intervals possible. The sensing unit consists of a FLIR Systems Merlin InSb camera (320 x 256 pixels), with 12-bit quantization and Stirling cooling.

SWIR imager