2000-Level Course Descriptions


FALL 2017

Intro Creative Writing: Creating a Portfolio | ENGL-2102.3-001 | P. DePasquale | TTH 10:00 – 11:15

This course is intended for students who want to develop work habits and strategies that will enable them to write effective prose and poetry. Students will learn creative writing techniques by reading, analyzing, and discussing successful models and by writing and workshopping their own creative works. Attendance and active participation are essential. Course requirements include attending literary events in the community to learn new and useful things about creative writing. One of the goals of this course is to develop a portfolio that could be submitted for consideration for the English Department’s upper-year creative writing courses.

Intro Creative Writing: Creating a Portfolio | ENGL-2102.3-002 | M. Sweatman | TTH 11:30 – 12:45

In this course, students will concentrate on developing a portfolio of creative writing of poetry, fiction, and creative non-fiction. The course will introduce strategies for developing creative work through improvisational in-class writing exercises, as well as close reading, and critical analysis of published literature posted on Nexus. Emphasis will be placed on the skills involved in self-editing, in workshopping creative work, and the professional preparation of manuscripts suitable for a portfolio. You will be required to submit three creative writing assignments (at least one of which must be poetry), and one parody or homage of a published work along with a stylistic analysis. You will give one oral presentation of a memorized poem, and contribute to the class as a reader and a writer. Regular attendance is required.

We will not study genre fiction such as fantasy or horror. The focus of this course is on literary writing mainly in the realist tradition, with some attention to experimental or avant-garde writing.

Recommended for students who plan to enroll in further creative writing courses at the undergraduate level. Prerequisite: 6 credit hours of First-Year English. Restrictions: May not be taken by students already holding credit in ENGL-3101/6, ENGL-3112/6, ENGL-3113/3, or ENGL 3114/3.

Intro Creative Writing | ENGL-2102.3-050 | J. Ball | M 18:00 - 21:00

The focus of this course is on developing a portfolio of creative writing that you might use to apply to higher-level courses in the Department of English. In a broader sense, the purpose of this course is to introduce students to the fundamentals of creative writing. The basic contention of this course is that creative writing is a form of work, which requires the development of analytical and compositional skills, alongside the cultivation of strong professional habits. Students will learn to divest themselves of the “inspiration model” and manufacture inspiration. Students will analyze model texts to determine how they work and how to recognize and reproduce particular literary tactics. Students will learn and practice various compositional tactics, from traditional methods of poetic observation to experimental new methods. Emphasis will be placed on revision, both structural and stylistic, and refining work through successive drafts. The basics of preparing and submitting creative work for publication will also be discussed.

English Literatures and Cultures 700 – 1660: Medieval Readers and Their Media | ENGL-2220.3-001 | J. Reid | MW 16:00 – 17:15

This course explores the relationship between text, culture, and media in the North Atlantic region, especially in Britain and Ireland, from the earliest recorded sub-literary texts through to the literary outputs of the later Middle Ages and beyond. Particular attention is paid to the consequences of specific socio-cultural and environmental factors, including contact with the Roman Empire, widespread intercultural exchange, conquests and migrations, and media change. Media change is unpacked in relation to the introduction of Christianity, the Roman alphabet, Latin language and learning, and technologies such as the codex into this region. Throughout the course, the creation and evolution of what is recognized as Old and Middle English literature is contextualized by bringing close reading of specific texts together with a multi-disciplinary approach to their historical milieux. Using Elaine Treharne’s Old and Middle English, c. 600–c. 1450: An Anthology, Hugh Magennis’s The Cambridge Introduction to Anglo-Saxon Literature, Seamus Heaney’s Beowulf: A New Verse Translation, and other specially selected texts, this course situates early English literatures and cultures within the wider history of media change, and cross-cultural adoptions and adaptations. It suggests points of continuity, contrast, and comparison with our contemporary world of New Media and global interconnectivity.

Short Fiction | ENGL-2603.3-001 | B. Pomeroy | MWF 13:30 – 14:20

The purpose of this course is to introduce the short story genre and examine a diverse set of literary techniques. Accordingly, we will read a few stories every week and examine how literary devices help to convey a story’s intent. We will practice the skills of close reading as well as engage in more theoretical critical approaches to text. We will study classics of the genre, such as Nikolai Gogol’s “The Nose” as well as more contemporary works like Thomas King’s “Borders” and “One Good Story That One”. We are interested in the construction of character, the different forms of narrator, the use of dialogue and setting, and the manipulation of narrative levels and narrative time. Our stories include realist texts as well as symbolic, psychological, and speculative thought experiments. This course will be a discussion-based analysis of the techniques used to create engaging stories and should be useful for those students who are interested in learning about the diversity of ways in which authors have confronted narrative and structural questions in the stories they wish to tell.

Play Analysis | ENGL-2703.3-001 | P. Brask | MWF 13:30 – 14:20

This is a practical course for actors, directors, and designers in the analysis of plays in rehearsal and pre-rehersal situations. A variety of interpretive strategies are developed in approaching the problems of form, character, and theme in plays of different styles and periods. The emphasis is on Stanislavsky-derived techniques.

Topics in Women Writers: Twenty-First Century Experimental Writing| ENGL-2922.3-001 | H. Milne | TTH 10:00 – 11:15

This section of Topics in Women Writers will consider experimental and avant-garde writing by women written since the turn of the twenty-first century.  Through the study of fiction, poetry, essays, and autobiography, as well as genres that are hybrid and difficult to define, we will consider how women writers experiment with language and genre to advance complex inquiries into identity, selfhood, experience, and aspects of contemporary politics. We will consider of how literary innovation can function as means to explore aspects of marginalized identity or advance a political critique. Through lectures, in-class activities, and writing assignments, students will develop skills for reading experimental literature.  Readings will include Dionne Brand, Inventory; Nicole Brossard, Intimate Journal; Claudia Rankine, Citizen: An American Lyric; Ali Smith, The Accidental; Juliana, Spahr, That Winter the Wolf Came; Rita Wong, Undercurrent ; Rachel Zolf, Janey’s Arcadia.

Topics in Women Writers: Short Stories | ENGL-2922.3-245/246 | C. Peters | W 17:00 – 20:00 |WEC

In this course, we study short stories written by women. We’ll focus on the short story as a literary genre, on gender, and on voice, as well as on the oral qualities of the short story, more generally. We’ll touch on categories such as dystopic and utopic fiction and national literatures and on other identity categories, in addition to gender and nationality. Perhaps, as Thomas King puts it, “The truth about stories is that that’s all we are.”


Field of Children’s Literature | ENGL-2003.6-001 | C. Tosenberger | TTH 13:00 – 14:15

This course is an introduction to the study of children's literature, and therefore of necessity, also a study of childhood itself: to understand what constitutes the category "children's literature," we need to understand what constitutes the category "child," as children's literature is a literary genre defined by its audience. We will survey the place of children in history from the Middle Ages to the present, concentrating especially on the development of the "Romantic child" in the late 18th century and on the rise of "teenager" as a category in the early 20th century - and how the ideas popularized during these periods influence our concepts of young people and their literature today (especially in the arena of what is considered "appropriate" for children). We will study and discuss a wide range of material aimed at young people, including religious instruction, fairy tales, poetry, the famous works of the "Golden Age," picture books, series fiction, fantasy, young adult literature, and films. We will also look at writing by children and teenagers, and discuss how these texts compare to the material produced for them by adults; particular attention will be paid to the issues of young people in cyberspace. Throughout, we will interrogate our received ideas about "kids' stuff," and about kids themselves.

Picture Books for Children | ENGL-2113.6-001 | R. Clement | MWF 13:30 – 14:20

This course explores picture book elements, industries, and modes of reception and interpretation, involving strategies such as small-group discussions, presentations, oral and written forms of analysis, and the making of picture books. Of particular interest is our exploration of experimental and innovative picture book forms and their contribution to changing concepts of the child, childhood and children's culture. This course may incorporate experiential, community-based and service-learning components.

Fairy Tales and Culture | ENGL-2114.6-001 | C. Tosenberger | TTH 16:00 – 17:15

In this course students study fairy tales, focusing not only on original source material, but on literature written specifically for children based on these borrowed forms. Students trace the history of fairy tales from their origins in myth and folklore to their impact on contemporary culture today. Students read and write critically about these tales and engage in comparisons on multiple fronts, exploring major themes and characteristics of these tales as well as the social and psychological aspects of them. The goal is to enrich our appreciation of these tales by strengthening our critical understanding of them as well as to gain insight as to how these tales function in our selves and our society.

Field of Literary and Textual Studies | ENGL-2142.6-001 | K. Venema | W 09:30 – 12:30

ENGL-2142 is a demanding and exceptionally rewarding course that is offered in seminar format to enable far more student participation and student-directed exploration than is possible in most general English courses.  You can, but you do not have to be in the Honours Program to enjoy, excel at, and benefit from ENGL-2142.  The course offers an in-depth introduction to, and practice in the skills of, literary and textual studies.  Over the span of the course, we explore the histories of literary and textual studies, including literary criticism and critical theories.  We specifically practice the skills of close reading and textual analysis, reading through the lenses of critical theories, researching, assembling bibliographies, and analyzing literary and cultural scholarship.  We use a variety of formats – including formal and informal oral presentation, seminar discussion, and formal, written, textual analysis – to examine the questions, methods, and modes of interpretation that underpin literary and textual studies in the 21st century.  We will almost certainly generate more questions than answers, which will be excellent preparation for a sustained study of literary and cultural texts and, possibly, for ongoing work in this field. 

Field of Cultural Studies | ENGL-2145.6-001 | B. Cornellier | M 14:30 – 17:15

This course is an introductory survey of cultural studies. It starts with a historical genealogy of the field of cultural studies as an outgrowth of the British New Left in the 1960s. It first introduces students to the field’s particular critical focus on questions related to social class and popular culture as sites where power is negotiated, reproduced, and contested. The course then examines how cultural studies traveled and evolved beyond the British context, and how it offered new ways to critically examine a constantly shifting cultural field in which issues of class, race, gender, sexuality, geography, nationality, Indigeneity, etc., constantly intersect. The course includes readings in theory and criticism and the study of cultural forms and practices, such as literature, film, television, visual and performance art, music, print and electronic media, as well as the institutions that shape them. Issues covered may include: mass culture and popular culture; subjectivity, identity, class, and agency; ethnicity and race; postcolonialism and settler colonialism; urbanism, nationalism, transnationalism, diaspora, and globalization; sex, gender, and sexuality; film texts and audiences; digital media culture; and the politics of representation.

Screen and Cultural Studies | ENGL-2146.6-050 | A. Burke | M 18:00 – 21:30

This course introduces students to the history, development and contemporary proliferation of screen media. It will examine the ways in which our world is mediated by screen representations and think about the consequences of such mediation. The course will begin with an extended consideration of that most mythologized of screens: the cinema. From its earliest days, film has been self-reflexive about the power, the possibilities, and the pitfalls of cinematic representations. We will watch and discuss a series of films that set their sights on the silver screen itself, including Sherlock Jr (Buster Keaton, 1924), Man With a Movie Camera (Dziga Vertov, 1928), All That Heaven Allows (Douglas Sirk, 1955), and Close-Up (Abbas Kiarostami, 1990). In addition to these feature films, we will look to the gallery to consider the role experimental, avant-garde, and artists’ films have played in expanding thinking about screen surfaces, from Bruce Conner’s A Movie (1958) to Chantal Akerman’s La Chambre (1972).

From cinema we will turn to television, and examine the history of broadcast media and think about the programming that structures it. We’ll ground our investigations in a consideration of contemporary forms of prestige television. But we will also survey the fragmentation of television that happened first with the advent of cable broadcasting and then again with the emergence of streaming sites and digital video platforms. The final phase of the course looks to the contemporary explosion of screen media and the proliferation of phones, tablets, and laptops that have, to a certain degree, displaced cinema and television as the privileged screens of the present. We will analyze the consequence of the cinema and television’s migration to this new set of screens, but also think about the array of platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Tumblr, and others) that structure the contemporary screen experience. Finally, we will ask how contemporary screen forms, such as GIFs, Vines, and memes fit with the longer history of screen media.

Popular Literature and Film | ENGL-2180.6-001 | S. Crompton | F 14:30 – 17:15

This course examines popular literature and film in relation to one another, including contemporary forms like television or web series. We will examine the aesthetics of films and literature, using careful close reading to illustrate how meaning is conveyed. We will discuss the impact popular art can have on our culture, and how complex storytelling can expand our empathy and imagination. Through our analyses, we will explore the concept of adaptation from one medium to another, as well as recurring topics like theatricality, time, and family in film and literature.

The Age of Chaucer | ENGL-2221.6-001 | Z. Izydorczyk | TTH 14:30 – 15:45

RuneScape, War of the Roses, Mount and Blade, The Witcher.... The Game of Thrones, Da Vinci’s Demons, The Borgias, Reign, The Tudors, Pillars of the Earth, World without End.... This course, is… well... not going to focus on these modern productions. However, it is going to engage the real thing: the culture, once very much alive, that served as an inspiration for so many modern video games, films, and TV series. The later Middle Ages, the age of Chaucer, was a period of both devastating calamities and highest creative accomplishments. Students in this course will explore both, reflecting on how medieval life was imaginatively transformed into -- and captured in -- secular and religious lyrics, ballads, tales, romances, religious poems, and mystery plays. They will study those literary texts in the wider context of contemporary art, music, folklore, theology, and science; they will learn about the social organization of the world populated by real knights, ladies, squires, monks, nuns, and the wives of Bath; and they will experience the language in which they fought, loved, argued, and prayed. Most of the assigned readings will be in medieval English (Middle English), but students will be allowed (and in some cases encouraged) to use translations.
The course will be taught mostly through informal lecture-discussions, but it will involve some practical exercises, oral presentations, work in small peer groups, and even creative writing.  Students will be expected to write two major research papers (one each term), write two quizzes and two term tests, and engage in occasional in-class writing.
The course requires no prior gaming experience, but curiosity about the medieval world and willingness to enter imaginary combats, secret love affairs, and fictional pilgrimages will be an asset.

Shakespeare | ENGL-2311.6-001 | M. Simon | MWF 11:30 – 12:20

William Shakespeare.  The playwright’s name alone calls to mind certain feelings, attitudes, and assumptions.  Arguably no other figure in the literary canon carries the same weight as Shakespeare.  Rightly or wrongly, he is considered to be the greatest wordsmith in the history of the English language.  But what is it about his works that makes them so exceptional?  Surprisingly, it is not the plots of his plays.  Undoubtedly, they are brilliant, but most of them are not original to Shakespeare; he engaged with stories that were popular in his culture and reworked these plots into his plays. (In the same way as we today do with Shakespeare’s plays: what else is Disney’s The Lion King than Hamlet with a happy ending?)

It is Shakespeare’s language – his actual words – that has earned him the title of “The Bard.”  The primary goal of this class is to explore how Shakespeare’s language, his use of verse and prose, the layers of meaning contained in his words, and even the gaps and silences within his works, allow for endless possibilities of interpretation.   Of course, as we study his works our analysis will intersect with the larger issues that are brought up by Shakespeare’s plays: politics, religion, race, gender, class, love, desire, jealousy… the list is endless, but our root will always be in the words and rhythms of the texts themselves.  As the course progresses, I’m sure you will soon come to realize why Shakespeare holds such a prominent place in our literary history, and why his plays still remain popular today. 

The Novel: Romancing Realism, Realizing Romance: Gender Politics and Genre in the History of the British Novel | ENGL-2601.6-001 | K. Ready | TTH 11:30 – 12:45

This particular section of ENGL 2601, subtitled “Romancing Realism, Realizing Romance: Gender Politics and Genre in the History of the British Novel,” explores the history of the British novel from the Restoration/eighteenth century to contemporary times, with a focus on gender politics and genre. For a long time, a handful of male writers, including Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, and Henry Fielding, were hailed as Afathers@ of the English novel. Such writers were credited with establishing and elevating the novel to the status of a respected literary genre, in part by distancing it from romance. While many initially considered the novel, like romance, a “feminine” genre produced for a predominantly female readership, the feminine associations of the novel gradually disappeared, and it came to be conceived as a Amasculine@ genre in contrast to the Afeminine@ romance. Yet the history of the British novel has remained closely intertwined with romance in its many varieties, both “feminine” and “masculine.” This course investigates the continuing interplay between romance and realism in the British novel throughout its history, with consideration to many other important issues beyond gender politics and genre. As well as the history of the novel, we will look at the history of film adaptations of the novel in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries as well as other forms of remediation.

Survey of Women Writers | ENGL-2933.6-001 | H. Milne | TTH 13:00 – 14:15

This course offers a survey of women writers from the thirteenth century to the present. While it is impossible to provide a complete survey of 800 years of women’s writing in eight months, this course will offer a framework through which we might begin to understand the rich history of writing by women. We will consider the ways in which women writers have participated in and shaped literary movements, and we will also consider some of the social and material obstacles women writers have faced as they sought opportunities to write and publish their work. We will consider how women writers have used their writing to address complex issues with regard to women’s lived experiences, and we will pay particular attention to how they have addressed the topics of sexuality, race, and class in their work. The first semester will focus primarily on pre-twentieth-century writings and the second semester will focus on twentieth and twenty-first century writings.


Intro Creative Writing: Creating a Portfolio | ENGL-2102.3-005 | P. Robertson | MWF 09:30 – 10:20

This workshop-based course offers a hands-on introduction to the craft and process of creative writing. You will read the work of established writers, study the craft of writing, and explore voice, technique, and “the journey of discovery” through original creative writing of your own. You will also participate in small peer group sessions in which you discuss your fellow students’ writing. Among other benefits, editing others’ work will help you learn how to revise and edit your own. The course will include in-class writing, technique-specific practices, and close reading and group discussion of both student writing and assigned readings. You will write in three genres (creative nonfiction/memoir, short fiction, and poetry), and your final assignment will be a portfolio of revised creative work produced during the course. Recommended for students who plan to enroll in further creative writing courses at the undergraduate level.

Intro Creative Writing | ENGL-2102.3-006 | D. Brandt | MWF 10:30 – 11:20

Description TBA

Intro Creative Writing | ENGL-2102.3-007 | J. Scoles | MW 14:30 – 15:45

In this course, students will concentrate on developing a significant portfolio of creative writing, including poetry, fiction and creative non-fiction. The course will introduce students to frameworks and strategies for developing creative work through improvisational writing exercises, close reading, and critical analysis. Key writing concepts—Voice, Plot, Setting, and Character, for example—will be explored in depth, and emphasis will be placed on the skills involved in drafting, self-editing, peer-reviewing, and work-shopping creative work, as well as the professional preparation and submission of manuscripts suitable for publication. This course is recommended for students who plan on taking further creative writing courses at the undergraduate level, as well as those who have an interest in pursuing creative writing as a profession.

British Literature and Culture 1660 – 1901 | ENGL-2230.3-001 | C. Russell | TTH 16:00 – 17:15

In 1660, after its Long Commonwealth experiment as a republic, England saw the restoration of its monarchy with the return of Charles II from exile.  In 1901, Queen Victoria died; the Victorian era lingered in the reign of her son Edward VII, but the views and artistic production of Modernism were coming on with the new century.  Between these two dates the culture of Britain changed enormously, and some of the most remarkable literature was produced. Our texts will include poetry, drama, fiction, and works of theory and criticism; we will read extensively and try to sample as many writers as possible from these periods.  We aim to understand changing views about the production, reception, and role of literature in society, and its historical, political, social, religious, philosophical, and artistic contexts, through these two and a half centuries. 

Poetry and Poetic Forms | ENGL-2604.3-001 | P. Melville | MW 14:30 – 15:45

This course is designed to introduce students to various features, forms, and figures of poetic discourse. While historical context informs lectures and class discussion, this section of the course proceeds, for the most part, according to the figural elements of poetry (such as rhythm and rhyme, diction and tone, metaphor and allegory).  By engaging in thorough discussions and varied writing assignments, students learn to become more appreciative, alert readers of poetry, and in the process expand the possibilities of their own writing.

Science Fiction | ENGL-2612.3-001 | A. Burke | TTH 14:30 – 15:45

This course provides an overview of the history of science fiction and a consideration of the ongoing cultural and political significance of the genre. We will begin with a classic, H.G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds, but the course will largely focus on more recent work, drawing its readings from authors such as Octavia Butler, Nnedi Okorafor, Ted Chiang, and Drew Hayden Taylor. In addition to our readings, the course also considers the impact that science fiction has had on film and in the visual arts. The world(s) of science fiction are immense, and while the course will deliver a thumbnail history of the genre and a consideration of its many variants and subgenres, our primary focus will be on the catastrophic. Taking our cue from Fredric Jameson’s observation that it is now easier to imagine the end of the world than the end of capitalism, the course will zero in on the images and representations of the catastrophic in science fiction and contemplate the causes and the consequences of our collective fascination with apocalyptic scenarios and survival strategies. In our investigations, we will pay particularly close attention to gender, race, and class, and reflect upon the ways in which science fiction, whether set in the near or distant future, is first and foremost about the present.

Fantasy Fiction: And the Award Goes To… | ENGL-2613.-001 | P. Melville | TTH 10:00 – 11:15

This course analyzes literary works within the fantasy genre in light of feminist, postcolonial, Marxist, and other cultural theories. While it considers the history of the fantasy genre and the “fantastic” as a literary mode, the course focuses primarily on the poetics and politics of “world-building,” a term that refers to fantasy’s production of imaginary “secondary” worlds whose historical, geographical, ontological, and cultural realities substantially differ from the world(s) inhabited by fantasy’s various readerships. The course covers a variety of fantasy subgenres, including epic fantasy, urban fantasy, magical realism, and fantasy for young people. The selection of texts for this section of the course is based on a sample of recent novels that have won awards conferred by institutions such as the World Fantasy Convention, the World Science Fiction Society, the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, and Locus magazine. Accordingly, the course also considers how historical and cultural pressures influence the administration of such awards and how these awards in turn shape the future of the fantasy genre.

NOTE: Students can expect to cover approximately one novel every two weeks.  Reading in advance is highly recommended.

Syntax | ENGL-2802.3-001 | K .Malcolm | TTH 10:00 – 11:15

This course is designed to give students an introduction to the study of syntax. Students will be introduced to a metalanguage which will enables them to talk about language. However, learning the metalanguage itself is not the goal of the course. Rather it is to learn a number of ways of thinking about, and exploring, language so students will be able to continue their explorations long after the course has ended. After all, the English language remains a frontier of exciting international research which only begins to unravel the complexities of the patterns which typify daily communication.

During the first half of this course, students focus on exploring and analyzing language syntactically (sequence) in order to discover how it works. During this part of the course there is little to read, and there are no essays to write. Class attendance, participation and completing the homework is everything!! If you do not like coming to classes, you should not take this course. And completing each day’s homework is the only way to learn the material. There is some memorization, but learning the process of analysis is even more important, and cannot be imbibed from listening alone. Once students are familiar with the experiential analyses of syntactic choices, they will also learn interpersonal and textual systems associated with syntax. At some point, they will translate their analytical skills into editting skills. The course is taught through informal lectures and dozens of board examples.

I have little interest in teaching students about language through a series of definitions which they memorize, apply in a very rigid way to a few simple, artificial, isolated sentences, and subsequently forget because the whole process had so little to do with their communicative reality. My intention is to support students in exploring the fascinating complexities and subtleties of language that they are already masters of, in order to help them think about, and become more conscious of, how they make meaning in a multitude of situations, each with its own demands and its own constraints.

My underlying assumption throughout this course is that the more conscious students become of how English, or any language for that matter, works, the more effective they can be in their communicative choices. The more effective their written and spoken communication skills are the more students empower themselves both personally and socially.

Language and Culture | ENGL-2804.3-050 | K. Malcolm | W 18:00 – 21:00

This course is considered the introductory course to the fascinating area of language and culture. A background in linguistics is not required; however, an interest in the subtleties of communication is. The course begins with a consideration of issues related to language in different temporal and geographical contexts like bilingualism and multilingualism. After this, the course moves into an exploration of various social dialects relating to age, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. Although varieties of English in daily life are the focus of the course, the textbook introduces students to research pertaining to other languages and cultures as well. Geographical, temporal and social dialects are discussed from the perspectives of linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics for the most part, but also from a systemic functional linguistic perspective. Although theoretical terms are introduced in this course, the development of a sophisticated metalanguage is not the primary goal. Rather, an increased awareness of the way language and culture are interrelated is. The course will be through informal lectures, group work, and individual reflection.

Semantics | ENGL-2806.3-002 | G. Fulford | TTH 08:30 – 09:45

This course offers an introduction to the basic concepts and methods in the analysis of natural language meaning. Students examine current approaches and assess their merit. Approaches to be covered may include structuralist semantics, cognitive semantics, referential semantics, and radical pragmatics.